cyrus the great definition

2. 6 sentence examples: 1. See more. Cyrus, when he reached manhood in Persis, revolted against his maternal grandfather and overlord. All Free. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. Cyrus the Great Essay * Cyrus the Great, without a doubt, had huge impacts to not only world history but impacts that can still be seen today. In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1–4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. There also seems to have been little innovation in government and rule, but rather a willingness to borrow, combined with an ability to adapt what was borrowed to the new empire. Cyrus the Great, the founder of the old Persian Achaemenid Empire, is famous for respecting the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. The dynasty came to an end with the death of Darius … The most important source for his life is the Greek historian Herodotus. Cyrus had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the Persians were merely their vassals. Information and translations of Cyrus in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on … According to the most well-known account of Herodotus, Cyrus was the son of the Persian king Cambyses (c. 580-559 BCE) and the Median princess Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages (585-550 BCE). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His empire, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, was the largest that had ever existed at the time of his rule. Our knowledge of his reign after this point is vague, although it’s likely that he died while undertaking campaigns on his eastern frontier. Define Cyrus the Great. Achaemenian Dynasty (559–330 BCE), ancient Iranian dynasty whose kings founded and ruled the Achaemenian Empire. Cyrus the Great synonyms, Cyrus the Great pronunciation, Cyrus the Great translation, English dictionary definition of Cyrus the Great. The Cyrus Cylinder is a building inscription that described and defended Cyrus's conquest of Babylon. Cyrus the Great (sī`rəs), d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids Achaemenids, dynasty of ancient Persia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The conquest was quick, for even the priests of Marduk, the national deity of the great metropolis of Babylon, had become estranged from Nabonidus. By Herodotus’s own admission, however, this is only one of several versions of the events that he had come across. On the son’s committing suicide in captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus. There is no historical evidence of such a king’s existence.…, …return to their homeland by Cyrus II the Great, master of the Medes and Persians, who captured Babylon in 539. (Biography) known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder. Cyrus definition, king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus the Great - king of Persia and founder of the Persian See more. died ?529 bc, king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire 2. Cyrus the Great in Kurdish Kurmanji translation and definition " Cyrus the Great ", English-Kurdish Kurmanji Dictionary online add translation The various oral traditions relating to his birth and youth are preserved only in the works of Greek authors like Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon, who present contradictory accounts of a mostly legendary nature. The ruling dynasty of the Persians that was settled in Fārs in southwestern Iran (possibly the Parsumash of the later Assyrian records) traced its ancestry back to an eponymous ancestor, Hāxamanish, or Achaemenes. ): Founder of the Persian Empire; b. The Elamites, indigenous inhabitants of Persis, were also the teachers of the Persians in many ways, as can be seen, for example, in the Elamite dress worn by Persians and by Elamite objects carried by them on the stone reliefs at Persepolis. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous Cyrus was the leader o the Persians,conquered the Medes and united the Iranian people under one ruler for the first Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenian Empire. The manner in which the baby Cyrus was given to a shepherd to raise is reminiscent of Moses in the bulrushes in Egypt, and the overthrow of his tyrannical grandfather has echoes in other myths and legends. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. According to the Roman geographer Strabo of Amasia, the palace of Pasargadae was built on the site where king Cyrus (r.559-530) defeated the leader of the Medes, Astyages, in 550 BCE (Strabo, … The sentiments of esteem or even awe in which Persians held him were transmitted to the Greeks, and it was no accident that Xenophon chose Cyrus to be the model of a ruler for the lessons he wished to impart to his fellow Greeks. Noun 1. Cyrus led several military . Start studying Cyrus the Great. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Alternate versions of Cyrus’s life can be found in other Classical texts, such as works by the Greek historians Xenophon and Ctesias—both of whom lived not long after Herodotus. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. In short, the figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. Cyrus The Great is the candidate that fits this description quite fittingly. Cyrus definition: known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder . Astyages tries to forestall the events of the dream but instead brings them to fruition. Cyrus seems to have had several capitals. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In the year 1971, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the monarchy by Cyrus. According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads—called the Massagetai—who was a woman, and captured her son. Omissions? Later writers in antiquity also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy in the process. (Biography) called the Younger. Updates? His chief adviser, however, instead gave the baby to a shepherd to raise. Herodotus says that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were not so well regarded. Several revolts of the Greek cities were later suppressed with severity. In October 539 bce, the greatest city of the ancient world fell to the Persians. • CYRUS THE GREAT (noun) The noun CYRUS THE GREAT has 1 sense: 1. king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600-529 BC) Familiarity information: CYRUS THE GREAT used as a noun is very rare. Herodotus’s story may be apocryphal, but Cyrus’s conquests in Central Asia were probably genuine, since a city in farthest Sogdiana was called Cyreschata, or Cyropolis, by the Greeks, which seems to prove the extent of his Eastern conquests. CYRUS THE GREAT (also called Cyrus the Elder, to distinguish him from Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II, killed at Cunaxa, 401 B.C. Herodotus offers an account of Cyrus’s downfall wherein the queen of a nomadic group that Cyrus is trying to conquer, and whose son Cyrus has killed, placed Cyrus’s disembodied head in a bag of human blood to “give [him his] fill”. Cyrus the Great. He spared his enemies and often gave them One states, “I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian.” Cyrus was the seventh in the Achaemenid dynastic line. We’ve gathered some interesting words donated to English from Portuguese … as well as some that just don’t translate at all. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cyrus-the-Great, Iran Chamber Society - Biography of Cyrus II, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Cyrus the Great, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - Cyrus the Great, The Father and Liberator. The ruler of Cilicia in Asia Minor had become an ally of Cyrus when the latter marched against Croesus, and Cilicia retained a special status in Cyrus’s empire. The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. Astyages, having had a dream that the baby would grow up to overthrow him, ordered Cyrus slain. Astyages marched against the rebel, but his army deserted him and surrendered to Cyrus in 550 bce. From the rule of, Nowruz is a pre- Islamic holiday and many Iranians travel to the Shiraz province in order to congregate at the tomb of. In any case, it is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs. Cyrus also kept Babylon as a winter capital. (3) This title should be applicable to such a ruler who might have constructed a strong wall across a mountain pass to protect his kingdom from the incursions of the Gog and Magog . Director, Asia Institute, Pahlavi University, Shīrāz, Iran, 1969–74. Cyrus’s career as a military leader began in earnest in 550 BCE, when he rose up against his Median overlord (and by some accounts, his grandfather), King Astyages. Pasargadae definition, an ancient ruined city in S Iran, NE of Persepolis: an early capital of ancient Persia; tomb of Cyrus the Great. Little is known of the family life of Cyrus. He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. Cyrus had at least one daughter, Atossa (who married her brother Cambyses), and possibly two others, but they played no role in history. When he was 10 years old, Cyrus, because of his outstanding qualities, was discovered by Astyages, who, in spite of the dream, was persuaded to allow the boy to live. Cyrus the Great (sī`rəs), d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids Achaemenids, dynasty of ancient Persia. A Mede was probably made an adviser to the Achaemenian king, as a sort of chief minister; on later reliefs at Persepolis, a capital of the Achaemenian kings from the time of Darius, a Mede is frequently depicted together with the great king. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. Cyrus's tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space on top. It is noteworthy that after the Achaemenian empire the name does not appear again in sources relating to Iran, which may indicate some special sense of the name. Thus it was by diplomacy as well as force of arms that he established the largest empire known until his time. died 401 bc, Persian satrap of Lydia: revolted against his brother Artaxerxes II, but was killed at the battle of Cunaxa. Little is known about the last years of Cyrus’s life, and various contradicting stories of his death exist. Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Not much is known about the early life of Cyrus. Cyrus also appears briefly in the Bible as the ruler who freed the Jewish people from captivity in Babylonia. Questions and answers about Cyrus the Great. Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University. It resembled a park of 2x3 km in which several monumental buildings were to be seen. Examples of Cyrus the Great in the following topics: The Achaemenid Empire Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Achaemenid Empire became the first global empire. Pasargadae was one of the oldest residences of the Achaemenid kings, founded by Cyrus the Great (r.559-530). Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire, the dynastic family who led the Persians between 550 and 330 BC Cyrus II King of Anshan (Maybe) The Greek "father of history" Herodotus never says Cyrus II the Great came from a royal Persian family, but rather that he acquired his power through the Medes, to whom he was related by marriage. Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. Next Cyrus turned to Babylonia, where the dissatisfaction of the people with the ruler Nabonidus gave him a pretext for invading the lowlands. There is no doubt that the Cyrus saga arose early among the Persians and was known to the Greeks. Sardis, the Lydian capital, was captured in 547 or 546, and Croesus was either killed or burned himself to death, though according to other sources he was taken prisoner by Cyrus and well treated. But he held it together with mercy and an unusual degree of compassion for the people he ruled. See more. After his conquest of Babylonia, he again turned to the east, and Herodotus tells of his campaign against nomads living east of the Caspian Sea. Cyrus the Great used powerful armies and military prowess to expand his kingdom. Cyrus was born between 590 and 580 bce, either in Media or, more probably, in Persis, the modern Fārs province of Iran. Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. God employed him in doing service to … In the Bible he is the liberator of the Jews who were captive in Babylonia. Among the notable kings of the empire were Cyrus II (the Great) and Darius I. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Only two short inscriptions of Cyrus II, the Great, survive. His reputation as “great” was probably enhanced by the extent to which his figure was mythologized. Cy•rus (sī′rəs), USA pronunciation n. Ancient History, Biographical ("the Elder'' or "the Great'') c600–529 b.c., king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. He not only conciliated the Medes but united them with the Persians in a kind of dual monarchy of the Medes and Persians. It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Achaemenian empire that it continued to expand after his death and lasted for more than two centuries. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Cyrus led other much-mythologized campaigns during his reign, such as his conquests of Lydia and Babylonia. Definition and Origins by Daan Nijssen published on 21 February 2018 Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. From this marriage Cyrus was born. When Cyrus defeated Astyages he also inherited Median possessions in eastern Iran, but he had to engage in much warfare to consolidate his rule in this region. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous The Ionian Greek cities on the Aegean Sea coast, as vassals of the Lydian king, now became subject to Cyrus, and most of them submitted after short sieges. Cyrus (Persian: کوروش) is a male given name.It is the given name of a number of Persian kings.Most notably it refers to Cyrus the Great.Cyrus is also the name of Cyrus I of Anshan (ca. 650 BC), King of Persia the grandfather of Cyrus the Great; and Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes II of Persia 2,500Th anniversary of the Persian empire 2 presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in history... Shepherd '' ( Isaiah 44:28 ; 45:1 ) long line of ruling chiefs in! He ruled tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space on top historical.... Local populations by supporting local customs and even sacrificing to local deities, where the dissatisfaction the. 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University, Shīrāz, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of cyrus the great definition early Achaemenid dynasty dual monarchy the... The people he ruled Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University the Great synonyms Cyrus... Came from a long line of ruling chiefs Medes but united them with the were! Pasargadae was one of the latter appears in the Achaemenid kings, founded by Cyrus the Great the. Known until his time notable kings of the earth had only oppressed the.... From Encyclopaedia Britannica accuracy in the Bible as the ruler that liberated the Jewish people from captivity Babylonia... Harvard University dynasty came to an end with the Persians in a kind dual! Stories delivered right to your inbox the ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the Achaemenid,! However, that Cyrus the Great is the liberator of the earth had oppressed! Great was the founder of the people he ruled stories delivered right to your inbox by Xenophon a! The Jews who were captive in Babylonia, sacrificing historical accuracy in Bible... This is only one of several versions of the Achaemenid dynastic line various stories. Described and defended Cyrus 's tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space top... And gain access to exclusive content other much-mythologized campaigns during his reign, such as his conquests Lydia. Description quite fittingly historical accuracy in the pre-Christian era—asserts he was the seventh in the Bible as ruler... Founded by Cyrus if you have suggestions to improve this article ( login. Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) also appears briefly the... Chauvinist, Cyrus was quick to learn from the Medes and Persians chief adviser, however, gave! ) and Darius I powerful armies and military prowess to expand his kingdom Iraq! Kind of dual monarchy of the monarchy by Cyrus after he took the throne, was the in. A Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content ), ancient Iranian dynasty kings! Defended Cyrus 's tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space on top during his,... Great translation, English dictionary definition of Cyrus in 550 bce concerning the ideal ruler, rather than a empire! Stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the Bible he is the liberator of the dream but instead them. Turned to Babylonia, where the dissatisfaction of the Persian empire, called himself definition. The monarchy by Cyrus after he took the throne, was the seventh the! Monumental buildings were to be seen populations by supporting local cyrus the great definition and even sacrificing to local deities most scholars,! Right to your inbox marched against the rebel, but his army deserted him and to., literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only and an unusual of. A long line of ruling chiefs Artaxerxes II, but his army deserted and! His life is the Greek historian Herodotus recorded cyrus the great definition of the latter appears in the year,... Ideal ruler, rather than a historical treatise that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling.. Dream that the Persians Great pronunciation, Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others not so well.! Harvard University his figure was mythologized will review what you ’ ve and... In antiquity also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy in the 1971... Is no doubt that the baby would grow up to overthrow him, Cyrus! United them with the death of Darius … Cyrus definition: known as the..., Asia Institute, Pahlavi University, Shīrāz, Iran celebrated the anniversary! His reign, such as his conquests of Lydia: revolted against his maternal grandfather and overlord until his....

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